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     Assembly Language

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    animonzterz
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    PostSubject: Assembly Language   Sat Jun 14, 2008 6:34 pm

    Overview
    An assembly language is a low-level language for programming computers. It implements a symbolic representation of the numeric machine codes and other constants needed to program a particular CPU architecture. This representation is usually defined by the hardware manufacturer, and is based on abbreviations (called mnemonics) that help the programmer remember individual instructions, registers, etc. An assembly language is thus specific to a certain physical or virtual computer architecture (as opposed to most high-level languages, which are portable).

    Assembly languages were first developed in the 1950s, when they were referred to as second generation programming languages. They eliminated much of the error-prone and time-consuming first-generation programming needed with the earliest computers, freeing the programmer from tedium such as remembering numeric codes and calculating addresses. They were once widely used for all sorts of programming. However, by the 1980s (1990s on small computers), their use had largely been supplanted by high-level languages, in the search for improved programming productivity. Today, assembly language is used primarily for direct hardware manipulation, access to specialized processor instructions, or to address critical performance issues. Typical uses are device drivers, low-level embedded systems, and real-time systems.

    A utility program called an assembler is used to translate assembly language statements into the target computer's machine code. The assembler performs a more or less isomorphic translation (a one-to-one mapping) from mnemonic statements into machine instructions and data. (This is in contrast with high-level languages, in which a single statement generally results in many machine instructions. A compiler, analogous to an assembler, is used to translate high-level language statements into machine code; or an interpreter executes statements directly.)
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    PostSubject: Re: Assembly Language   Sat Jun 14, 2008 6:37 pm

    Key Concepts

    Assembler

    Typically a modern assembler creates object code by translating assembly instruction mnemonics into opcodes, and by resolving symbolic names for memory locations and other entities.[1] The use of symbolic references is a key feature of assemblers, saving tedious calculations and manual address updates after program modifications. Most assemblers also include macro facilities for performing textual substitution—e.g., to generate common short sequences of instructions to run inline, instead of in a subroutine.

    Assemblers are generally simpler to write than compilers for high-level languages, and have been available since the 1950s. Modern assemblers, especially for RISC based architectures, such as MIPS, Sun SPARC and HP PA-RISC, optimize instruction scheduling to exploit the CPU pipeline efficiently.

    More sophisticated high-level assemblers provide language abstractions such as:

    * Advanced control structures
    * High-level procedure/function declarations and invocations
    * High-level abstract data types, including structures/records, unions, classes, and sets
    * Sophisticated macro processing
    * Object-Oriented features such as encapsulation, polymorphism, inheritance, interfaces

    See Language design below for more details.

    Note that, in normal professional usage, the term assembler is often used ambiguously: It is frequently used to refer to an assembly language itself, rather than to the assembler utility. Thus: "CP/CMS was written in S/360 assembler" as opposed to "ASM-H was a widely-used S/370 assembler."

    Assembly language
    A program written in assembly language consists of a series of instructions--mnemonics that correspond to a stream of executable instructions, when translated by an assembler, that can be loaded into memory and executed.

    For example, an x86/IA-32 processor can execute the following binary instruction as expressed in machine language:

    * Binary: 10110000 01100001 (Hexadecimal: B0 61)

    The equivalent assembly language representation is easier to remember (example in Intel syntax, more mnemonic):

    * mov al, 61h

    This instruction means:

    * Move the value 61h (or 97 decimal; the h-suffix means hexadecimal) into the processor register named "al".

    The mnemonic "mov" represents the opcode 1011 which moves the value in the second operand into the register indicated by the first operand. The mnemonic was chosen by the instruction set designer to abbreviate "move", making it easier for the programmer to remember. A comma-separated list of arguments or parameters follows the opcode; this is a typical assembly language statement.

    In practice many programmers drop the word mnemonic and, technically incorrectly, call "mov" an opcode. When they do this they are referring to the underlying binary code which it represents. To put it another way, a mnemonic such as "mov" is not an opcode, but as it symbolizes an opcode, one might refer to "the opcode mov" for example when one intends to refer to the binary opcode it symbolizes rather than to the symbol--the mnemonic--itself. As few modern programmers have need to be mindful of actually what binary patterns are the opcodes for specific instructions, the distinction has in practice become a bit blurred among programmers but not among processor designers.

    Transforming assembly into machine language is accomplished by an assembler, and the reverse by a disassembler. Unlike in high-level languages, there is usually a one-to-one correspondence between simple assembly statements and machine language instructions. However, in some cases, an assembler may provide pseudoinstructions which expand into several machine language instructions to provide commonly needed functionality. For example, for a machine that lacks a "branch if greater or equal" instruction, an assembler may provide a pseudoinstruction that expands to the machine's "set if less than" and "branch if zero (on the result of the set instruction)". Most full-featured assemblers also provide a rich macro language (discussed below) which is used by vendors and programmers to generate more complex code and data sequences.

    Each computer architecture and processor architecture has its own machine language. On this level, each instruction is simple enough to be executed using a relatively small number of electronic circuits. Computers differ by the number and type of operations they support. For example, a new 64-bit machine would have different circuitry from a 32-bit machine. They may also have different sizes and numbers of registers, and different representations of data types in storage. While most general-purpose computers are able to carry out essentially the same functionality, the ways they do so differ; the corresponding assembly languages reflect these differences.

    Multiple sets of mnemonics or assembly-language syntax may exist for a single instruction set, typically instantiated in different assembler programs. In these cases, the most popular one is usually that supplied by the manufacturer and used in its documentation.
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    PostSubject: Re: Assembly Language   Sat Jun 14, 2008 6:38 pm

    Translate sandiri jo nechh.....
    itu kita ambe dari wikipedia...
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    PostSubject: Re: Assembly Language   Sun Jun 15, 2008 2:18 pm

    .


    Last edited by YokQ on Sun Jun 15, 2008 2:30 pm; edited 2 times in total
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    PostSubject: Re: Assembly Language   Sun Jun 15, 2008 2:26 pm

    translate untuk overview..

    bahasa jepang nya..

    概要
    アセンブリ言語では、低レベルのプログラミング言語をコンピュータです。が実装さを象徴するマシンコードを数値で表現したものやその他の定数
    をプログラムする必要に応じて、特定のCPUアーキテクチャです。この表現は、通常で定義され、ハードウェアの製造元に、とに基づいて略語(ニーモニック
    と呼ばれる)に役立つ、プログラマ覚えて個々の手順については、レジスタなどに固有のアセンブリ言語はこのように、特定の物理コンピュータまたは仮想コン
    ピュータアーキテクチャ(とは対照的に最も高レベルの言語にはポータブル)です。

    アセンブリ言語で開発された最初の1950年代に
    は、ときに彼らは第二世代のプログラミング言語と呼ばれています。彼ら排除エラーが発生しやすいと多くの時間がかかる第一世代のプログラミングを必要とす
    る最古のコンピュータでは、プログラマから解放することなど思い出して退屈数値計算コードとアドレスを入力します。彼らは一度のすべての種類のプログラミ
    ング広く使われています。しかし、 1980年代( 1990年代に小型のコンピュータの場合)
    、彼らの使用が大きくsupplantedされ、高レベルの言語には、検索の生産性向上のためのプログラミングです。今日、アセンブリ言語が使用され、主
    なハードウェアを直接操作、アクセスするための専用プロセッサの指示か、または重要なパフォーマンスに関する問題に対処する。典型的な使用は、デバイスド
    ライバ、低レベルの組み込みシステムでは、とリアルタイムのシステムです。

    アセンブラと呼ばれるプログラムするためのユーティリ
    ティを使用してアセンブリ言語に翻訳文を、ターゲットのコンピュータのマシンコードです。多かれ少なかれ、アセンブラを実行すると同型の翻訳(
    1対1のマッピング)よりニーモニックステートメントを機械語命令とデータです。 (これはこれとは対照的に、高レベルの言語では通常、
    1つのステートメントの結果を多くのマシンの指示に従います。
    、コンパイラ、アセンブラに類似して、を使用して、高レベルの言語に翻訳文をマシンコードに、または直接通訳ステートメントを実行する。 )
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    PostSubject: Re: Assembly Language   Sun Jun 15, 2008 2:27 pm

    bahasa arab nya

    نظرة عامة
    جمعية اللغة هي لغة منخفضه المستوى لبرمجة الكمبيوتر.
    فانها تنفذ التمثيل الرمزي للاله الرقميه وغيرها من المدونات والثوابت
    اللازمة لبرنامج معين وحدة المعالجه المركزية الهندسه المعماريه. وهذا
    التمثيل وتعرف عادة من قبل الجهاز الصانع ، ويقوم على اساس المختصرات) دعا
    اساليب تقوية الذاكرة) التي تساعد المبرمج نتذكر تعليمات الفرديه ،
    والسجلات ، وما هي لغة جمعية محددة ومن ثم الى ماديه معينة او افتراضيه
    الحاسوب الهندسه المعماريه (على العكس من معظم رفيع المستوى لغات ، وهي
    محمولة).

    لغة من لغات الجمعية العامة للمرة الأولى في
    الخمسينات ، عندما كانت ويشار الى الجيل الثاني لغات البرمجه. وهي القضاء
    على جزء كبير من عرضة للخطأ وتستغرق وقتا طويلا الجيل الاول من البرمجه
    اللازمة في أقرب وقت مع الحواسيب ، وتخليص المبرمج من الملل مثل نتذكر
    رموز رقمية ويتناول حساب. مرة واحدة كانت تستخدم على نطاق واسع لجميع
    انواع البرمجه. غير انه بحلول الثمانينات (التسعينات على الحواسيب
    الصغيرة) ، واستخدامها كانت الى حد كبير محل رفيع المستوى من جانب لغات ،
    في السعي الى تحسين الانتاجية والبرمجه. اليوم ، الجمعية العامة وتستخدم
    اللغة في المقام الأول لمباشرة الاجهزه التلاعب ، والوصول الى تعليمات
    المعالج المتخصصه ، او لمعالجة المسائل الحاسمه الاداء. النمطيه هي
    استخدامات برامج تشغيل الاجهزه ، وتدني المستوى جزءا لا يتجزأ من النظم ،
    ونظم في الوقت الحقيقي.

    المنفعه يسمى جامع البرنامج يستخدم
    لتحويل الجمعية الى اللغة المستهدفة بيانات الكمبيوتر آلة القانون. فإن
    جامع يؤدي أكثر أو أقل متماثل الترجمة التحريريه) واحد الى واحد ورسم
    الخرائط) من آلة متعلق بالذاكرة الى البيانات والتعليمات والبيانات. (وهذا
    هو على النقيض من اللغات الرفيع المستوى ، الذي في بيان واحد عموما
    النتائج في كثير من تعليمات الآلة. أ المجمع ، في حكمها الى جامع ، وهو
    يستعمل لترجمة رفيعة المستوى الى لغة الآلة البيانات المدونه ؛ او مترجم
    ينفذ البيانات مباشرة .)

    maaf gw ga bisa bahasa indonesia
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    PostSubject: Re: Assembly Language   Wed Jul 23, 2008 5:33 pm

    Bahasa Portugal dg???
    Soalx Kita orang Portugal..
    hehehehehehehe
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    cokiki
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    PostSubject: Re: Assembly Language   Wed Jul 23, 2008 9:34 pm

    mantab....
    qta blm ambe ini assembly
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    PostSubject: Re: Assembly Language   

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